Tuesday, 7 January 2014

Reviewing the Literature

Renewable Resource
As a plant, bamboo is considered to be easily renewable as it grows very fast. Nick Bajzek says ‘Bamboo is a type of grass that reaches maturity in about three to five years, whereas oak trees can take 120 years to grow to full maturity. The bamboo plant also regenerates and, when left to its own devices’ (Bajzek, 2009) showing the comparison of rate of growth. The record growth of bamboo is approximately one metre in one day alone. The fact that bamboo regenerates means that re-planting is not necessary. Continual re-harvesting does not cause environmental problems and id said to be beneficial to the plant itself. Another source suggests that bamboo reaches its full height at ‘5 – 8 weeks’. (Adamson, 1978, p.3) ‘Bamboo reinforces sustainable compounds’ provides yet more praise for bamboo’s sustainability saying it’s a ‘very fast growing, high volume crop and the production process to finished fibre has a very low energy requirement.’(Plastics, Additives and Compounding, 2008) One company that grows bamboo as a sustainable material is Hebei Jigao Chemical Fibre Company.  They have their own bamboo plantation and all the bamboo produced there is grown 100% naturally. This means that there are not pesticides used. The cutting down of trees to use as a resource causes damage to the environment as there will be much more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. However, this is a problem that does not occur with bamboo as ‘CO2 generated is balanced by the CO2 take-up by new bamboo growth, making it virtually carbon neutral’ (Plastics, Additives and Compounding, 2008). This overall makes bamboo which is actually a grass, much more renewable and environmentally friendly compared to other natural resources. There is not the case of deforestation adding to global warming and it doesn’t cause the destruction of habitats. At first I was concerned about it lowering the amount of food for the Pandas but because the bamboo used for these purposes is all grown in a specialist plantation my mind has been put to ease.
The Properties of Bamboo
Whilst researching I was amazed by the varied properties of bamboo. I think bamboo would make a very good sustainable material for medical textiles as it has ‘special properties such as antibacterial, absorbency, anti-UV, antistatic’ (Mishra, 2011) and has a ‘cool and soft feel.’ (Mishra, 2011) This would make it a very suitable material for dressings and gauze bandages as it would protect the wound from any invading microorganisms. This is a common problem in hospitals. Sometimes it is hard to notice and to prevent bacteria getting onto bandages and dressings while transporting them from where they are kept to the patient so I feel that bamboo’s properties are especially well suited to combatting this problem. Research shows that ‘100% bamboo fabrics are giving better results compared to 100% cotton and 100% viscose fabric in terms of antibacterial behaviour and absorbency’ (Mishra, 2011) which is all the better for sustainability as bamboo grows much faster than cotton and is easier to harvest as well as being more ‘pure’ than cotton which relies on the use of a lot of pesticides. While the pesticides used are said to not be harmful to humans there may still be some minor effects or cause allergies which is something that doesn’t apply to bamboo. Bamboo is also more breathable as a fabric which will aid a faster wound recovery. Bamboo also conditions temperature which also makes it good for interiors. Aruna Jyothi saysbamboo decors absorb heat and release cool air during the day, while releasing warm air and absorbing cold air at night’ (Diana, 2013). This gives bamboo and ecologically friendly factor as its temperature conditioning properties will help save on electrical bills from using central heating and air conditioning. Another property of bamboo is that it is naturally water repellent. This makes it very suitable for floorings.
Bamboo in Jewellery – Attitudes Towards Bamboo
Another interesting use for bamboo is for jewellery. The world of jewellery has started talking about ethics in regards to mining gems and minerals and some jewellers have even considered a greener side to their work. There are existing artists who have made use of organic materials in their work. Notable examples include Gustav Reye and Fred Tate. The idea of sustainability is more applicable to organic materials and even though they have been used (Reye used wood and Tate produced jewellery from bamboo and metal) there is still a stigma of sorts against using these kinds of materials for something ornamental with the exception of certain Asian cultures and a variety of indigenous communities. I think because it’s a type of grass and has been used for construction for centuries it doesn’t seem ‘precious’ enough to be used for jewellery. Bamboo is seen to be a ‘fast-growing plant for which the attributes beauty and utility match perfectly; the graceful canes…’ (Liu, 2012) Even though bamboo is considered to be beautiful and graceful, I question it’s acceptance amongst jewellers who may overlook its natural beauty with a higher focus of something ‘classically’ beautiful and luxurious. Even within Asian cultures, there is a ‘long history of usage and study, but there is very little in terms of their use for ornaments’ (Liu, 2012). I am saddened that even the culture bamboo comes from doesn’t appreciate its ornamental properties.

After reading a variety of journals, articles and e-books I have found that bamboo is a remarkable natural resource with a multitude of properties and possibilities. All the applicable pieces of literature agree that it is a renewable and fast growing plant that is completely natural and environmentally friendly. ‘Bamboo reinforces sustainable compounds says bamboo is ‘very fast growing, high volume crop and the production process to finished fibre has a very low energy requirement.’ (Plastics, Additives and Compounding, 2008) ‘BAMBOO JEWELRY: A SUSTAIBALE RESOURCE’ agrees, saying bamboo is a ‘fast-growing plant…’ (Liu, 2012)They also mutually agree on the properties of bamboo suggesting it’s a consistent resource. However, ‘BAMBOO JEWELRY: A SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE’ saddens me with how there is a stigma around using bamboo in jewellery and for ornamental reasons.

***

I actually really enjoyed reading all the journals and books and writing the literature review. I feel like I've learnt a lot and have started to appreciate bamboo as much more than just food.

Sunday, 5 January 2014

Bamboo Flooring

Bamboo Flooring: An Overview
Description: Printer-friendly versionDescription: Send by email
We examine why bamboo flooring is green and how to determine its quality
By Nick Bajzek, Products Editor
April 01, 2009


It looks good, but do your buyers understand they can damage the bamboo planks? The fact bamboo regenerates in its natural surroundings isn't the only factor to consider.
Some see bamboo as an eco-friendly source that can provide a virtually limitless supply of beautiful flooring. Others say it creates an easily-marred and carbon-intensive product of little use to high-traffic homes. But what's the bottom line: is bamboo a good choice?
Interior decorator Steven Patrick's clients have mixed reactions to bamboo. They like that it's a renewable resource and is hardier than other woods. They don't like that furniture, high heels or heavy objects can easily mar and damage a bamboo floor.
Bamboo's rise as a premier flooring product can be largely attributed to the fact that it's a rapidly renewable resource. Bamboo is a type of grass that reaches maturity in about three to five years, whereas oak trees can take 120 years to grow to full maturity. The bamboo plant also regenerates and, when left to its own devices, requires minimal fertilization or pesticides. Bamboo floors are also naturally water repellant.
David Knight, CEO of bamboo flooring manufacturer Teragren, estimates that 95 percent of bamboo flooring today is the Moso species, which is mostly grown in China. Other bamboo might come from Central and South American or even Vietnam. Teragren recently unveiled its latest boards, which can help builders attain LEED points.
Knight says builders and contractors must objectively look at the price of bamboo; you mostly get what you pay for, he says, adding that not all manufacturers import their bamboo from the same sustainable sources or produce boards in ISO-certified facilities.
Color is equally telling. Knight notes that bamboo flooring gets its color from a process called carbonization in which bamboo is steamed under controlled pressure and temperature. As the bio-organisms and sugar breaks down, the color of the material changes into varying shades of brown. This, in turn, can weaken the structural integrity and overall hardness. The name "solid bamboo"doesn't help, either, and can be misleading. Natural and carbonized bamboo floors are often referred to as solid bamboo even though it's layered, similar to plywood.
Founder Dan Smith from Smith & Fong flooring agrees builders and buyers should pay strict attention to the color. "From empirical experience, the darker, amber color will be softer because of the heat process. The natural color is invariably the best. The flat grain, not the edge grain, will produce the hardest boards," he says.
Smith says that Smith & Fong's Plyboo product is the only bamboo flooring provider that's FSC-Certified right now. That means there's minimal, if any, need to use pesticides, says Smith.
"It's really more of a matter of appropriate application than anything," says Knight. "If you use a softer wood from who knows where in a high traffic area, well, yeah, you might not be satisfied with its performance."


Thursday, 2 January 2014

So much for better luck

I still needed to to some comparative shopping for the Yorkshire Sculpture Park cushion project and thought I could go to York City Art Gallery and the Quilting Museum to visit their gift shops and see if they have cushion to compare with. Unfortunately, this turned out to be a wasted trip as both York City Art Gallery AND the Quilting Museum are closed for refurbishment until 2015. 2015!!!
Since the relevant places weren't accessible, I decided to try my luck elsewhere since York has a good variety of museums. I tried the Yorvik, National Trust, D.I.G and the Yorkshire Museum gift shops and none of them sold cushions. I started to get the impression that this was a wasted trip. (I didn't even manage to get the Grand Central!)
However, I do like York as a place and wandered around a bit for nostalgia visiting the Fudge Kitchen for a touch of sampling and reminiscing Hana suggesting making socks out of hot fudge. I also adventured past York Minster and remembered the Spots vs Stripes meet in the summer where we took interestingly posed photos in the court yard (and Erin stealing my pose) where we became a tourist attraction. 
Fabrics and materials don't make me think of things. Places do. The sillier the thing the more vividly it's remembered.
On a brighter note - I managed to get posters put up in Travelling Man and Waterstones for MangaCon in conjunction with Huddersfield Literature Festival 2014! that's gotta be a plus right?

Friday, 27 December 2013

Bamboo Jewellery

BAMBOO JEWELRY: A SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE
Liu, Robert KOrnamentDescription: http://search.proquest.com.libaccess.hud.ac.uk/assets/r20131.3.3-2/core/spacer.gif35.3Description: http://search.proquest.com.libaccess.hud.ac.uk/assets/r20131.3.3-2/core/spacer.gif (2012): 60-65,7.

  • · discussion in the jewellery world about ethical and safe practices in mining for minerals and gems
  • · On a smaller scale, there is some thought about recycling and sustainability among jewellers.
  • · Such concepts are perhaps more applicable to organic materials, but there has been a stigma against ornaments made of such substances, except in various indigenous and certain Asian cultures.
  • · Gustav Reyes's wood and Fred Tate's bamboo/metal jewelry are notable examples of artists using organic materials 
  • · Bamboo is a fast-growing plant for which the attributes beauty and utility match perfectly; the graceful canes consisting of hollow internodes, solid nodes and high lignin content
  • · bamboo in Asian construction scaffolding for high-rise buildings
  • · soothing sounds when the wind blows, are pleasing to touch and some, like the black bamboo, even have medicinal qualities…antibacterial
  • · long history of usage and study, but there is very little in terms of their use for ornaments
  • · bamboo structure relatively intact, while Tomomi Matsunaga (1992) sculpted giant timber bamboo culms into graceful ornaments
  • · internet marketplace, there are commercially-made bent bamboo cane bracelets
  • · steambending bamboo experiment made this method not really very economical or practical, since steaming alone was about two and a half hours, with additional time needed for cooling.
  • · no cane thinner than about 0.3 centimeters diameter was used, nor could I successfully bend any thicker than 0.9 centimeters diameter.
  • · as beautiful as it is sustainable. A clump or small grove of bamboo yields more than enough.


Sunday, 22 December 2013

Modified Bamboo

Modified bamboo rayoncopper nanoparticle composites as antibacterial textiles

·         M.D. TeliDescription: Corresponding author contact information, Description: E-mail the corresponding author, 
·         Javed Sheikh
·         Department of Fibres and Textile Processing Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga (E), Mumbai, 400019, India

  • ·  As the awareness about health and hygiene is increasing, the demand for antimicrobial textiles is also increasing.
  • ·  growing awareness about cleaner surroundings and healthy lifestyle, a range of textile products based on synthetic antimicrobial agents such as triclosan, metal and their salts, organometallics, phenols and quaternary ammonium compounds, have been developed and quite a few are also available commercially
  • ·  water absorbency, elasticity, ion exchange capabilities, thermal resistance and resistance to microbiological attack, can be improved
  • ·  Bamboo rayon fibers have already acquired an important position in the textile industry because of the advantage of raw material being renewable as well as the properties which are suitable for application in clothing and medical textiles.
  • ·  cheaper alternative for silver salts, copper salts, with almost equivalent antibacterial activity was deployed to make antibacterial material. The knitted bamboo rayon fabric grafted with acrylamide was utilized as a backbone to prepare the composite of it with copper nanoparticles. 


Saturday, 21 December 2013

The Novelty of Bamboo

Novelty of bamboo fabric
Rajesh Mishra a
 , B.K. Behera b
 & Bishnu Pada Pal b
a. Faculty of Textile Engineering , Technical University of Liberec , Czech Republic
b. Department of Textile Technology , Indian Institute of Technology , New Delhi , India
Published online: 31 May 2011

  • · special properties such as antibacterial, absorbency, anti-UV, antistatic, cool and soft feel.
  • · various applications such as gauze bandage, medical drapes, summer clothing and towel. 
  • · 100% bamboo fabrics are giving better results compared to 100% cotton and 100% viscose fabric in terms of antibacterial behaviour and absorbency
  • · better breathability
  • · higher values of fullness and softness
   Because of the antibacterial properties, bamboo would be a great investment in medical textiles. Bamboo has great properties and a larger variation of uses.



Sunday, 15 December 2013

For the love of Bamboo

Bamboo reinforces sustainable compounds
Copyright © 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • · Transmare Compounding B.V. introduced a range of new products reinforced with fibres from 100% renewable raw materials
  • · Based on polypropylene and biodegradable polylactic acid and employ bamboo fibre reinforcement
  • · ‘greener’ alternative
  • ·  Long been construction material – using fibres from core is new technology
  • · Strong, lightweight, wear resistant and low water absorption
  • · “Bamboo fibre reinforced compounds can be processed by injection moulding or extrusion in the same way as those using other reinforcements. Applications areas too are similar ranging from phone and notebook housings to furniture and automotive parts. And, they deliver the same high reinforcement properties when combined with bioplastics, such as PLA, for short lifecycle products, designed to degrade naturally at the end of their service life. Moreover, long bamboo fibres can be blended in a thermoplastic matrix to form compression mouldable mats. We have added these to our product basket and their potential is already attracting interest from the automotive industry as a next-step solution for lightweight, non-toxic interior and exterior vehicle panels”. – Robin Beishuizen
  • · Tested and trialled throughout Europe
  • · Bamboo contributes to sustainability
  • · It is a renewable, very fast growing, high volume crop and the production process to finished fibre has a very low energy requirement.
  • · CO2 generated is balanced by the CO2 take-up by new bamboo growth, making it virtually carbon neutral
Having read one journal and picked out the parts I feel are most significant, I feel a bit better about writing a literature report. Still confused though.